Skyscraper…Burj Khalifa, Dubai…Rascacielos

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Text credits:
https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burj_Khalifa
Burj Khalifa or “Khalifa Tower” (Arabic: برج خليفة) is a very tall skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates and is the world’s tallest building ever built, at 828m (2,717ft). Before the building opened, it was called Burj Dubai. The building is 160 stories high. Construction of the tower was started in 2004. The building was officially opened on 4 January 2010. It is the tallest structure made by humans in the world. The building is more than 300 metres (980 ft) taller than Taipei 101. Taipei 101 was the tallest building until 2010 before Burj Khalifa was built. But the Burj Khalifa may not hold this record for very long because an even taller building called the Jeddah Tower is being built in Jeddah in Saudi Arabia and it will be taller than 1 kilometer.
Adrian Smith designed the tower. He worked with Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) until 2006. It was built by Samsung Engineering & Construction, Besix, and Arabtec. The tower cost US $1.5 billion to build. The building is part of a 2 km building project on Sheikh Zayed Road, Downtown Burj Khalifa. It is near Dubai’s main business district.

Burj Khalifa compared to some other tall structures.
The main contractor was Samsung C&T of South Korea. They also built the Taipei 101 and Petronas Twin Towers. Other contractors who helped with the building included Belgian group Besix and Arabtec from the UAE. The Turner Construction Company was chosen as the construction project manager.
The design architect, Adrian Smith, did not like the first design of the upper part of the building. He added 27 new floors and an aluminium spire to the top of the plans. The design of Burj Khalifa based on those used in Islamic architecture. Burj Khalifa has been said to have had several other planned height increases since it was first built. This has not been proven to be true yet. The TV/radio communications mast was added to the tower’s plans in 2007. This was after building work had begun in 2006. There are pressurized, air-conditioned refuge floors about every 35 floors. These were put into the tower in case of an emergency or fire.
The unusual design and engineering problems of building Burj Khalifa have been shown in many television documentaries. These include the Big, Bigger, Biggest series on the National Geographic and Five channels, and the Mega Builders series on the Discovery Channel.
The most important building materiel of Burj Khalifa is reinforced concrete. A special concrete was needed because of the high pressures of the building’s weight and the hot local climate. Persian Gulf temperatures that can reach 50 °C (122 °F). Any major cracks could have caused a large amount of damage to the building.
The foundation of the building is 15 metres (49 ft) deep. It was built with 192 columns being put into the ground. Each column was 1.5m in diameter and 43m long. 55,000 tonnes of steel rebar was used in the construction of the tower. It took 22 million man-hours to build. A high density, low permeability concrete was used in the foundations of Burj Khalifa. A cathodic protection system is used to lessen any bad effects from corrosive chemicals in local ground water.

The Dubai Fountain performing to the song “Bassbor Al Fourgakom”
A fountain system was built outside the tower. It was designed by WET Design of California. They built and planned out the fountains at the Bellagio Hotel Lake in Las Vegas. The fountain cost Dh800 million (US$217 million). It is lit by 6,600 lights and 50 coloured projectors. The fountain is 275 ft long. It shoots water 150 ft into the air to the sounds of classical and modern Arabic and world music. On 26 October 2008, the fountain was named the Dubai Fountain.

The Burj Khalifa being made, in 2008.
Emaar Properties said on 9 June 2008 that construction of Burj Khalifa was slowed because of changes to finishes. An Emaar official said that the luxury finishes that were decided on in 2004, when the tower was first planned, were being being replaced by better finishes. The design of the apartments were also made better. This was done to make them both look better and work better. There were problems with the marble decorations, flooring, the top floors’ sanitation system, broken glasswork and a poorly done wall mural of the Sultan of Oman. A new ending date of 2 December, 2009, was then given. Burj Khalifa opened on 4 January 2010.

Workers’ disputes and strikes.
Burj Khalifa was built mainly by people from South Asia. Press reports said in 2006 that skilled carpenters at the site earned UK£4.34 a day, and labourers earned UK£2.84. According to a BBC investigation and a Human Rights Watch report, the workers lived in very bad conditions. Often they were not paid for the work. Their passports were taken by their employers. It was said that they were working in dangerous conditions that caused high number of deaths and injuries. Companies not paying workers has been reported to the authorities several times.

On 21 March 2006, about 2,500 workers protested. They were mad about buses that were delayed for the end of their shifts. They damaged cars, offices, computers, and construction equipment. A Dubai Interior Ministry official said they caused almost UK£500,000 in damage. Most of the workers who were part of the riot returned the following day but would not work.

Records set
File:Burj Dubai Evolution.ogv
A cartoon animation of construction process.
The building is not only the tallest structure in the world, it also holds the following records-
Tallest skyscraper to top of spire: 828 m (2,717 ft) (previously Taipei 101 – 509.2 m (1,671 ft))
Tallest structure ever built: 828 m (2,717 ft) (previously Warsaw radio mast – 646.38 m (2,121 ft))
Tallest freestanding structure: 828 m (2,717 ft) (previously CN Tower – 553.3 m (1,815 ft))
Building with most floors: 160 (previously Willis Tower – 108)
World’s highest elevator installation
World’s fastest elevators at speed of 64 km/h (40 mph) or 18 m/s (59 ft/s)[19] (previously Taipei 101 – 16.83 m/s)
Highest vertical concrete pumping (for a building): 606 m (1,988 ft) (previously Taipei 101 – 449.2 m (1,474 ft))
Highest vertical concrete pumping (for any construction): 606 m (1,988 ft) (previously Riva del Garda Hydroelectric Power Plant – 532 m (1,745 ft))
The first world’s tallest structure in history to include residential space
Highest outdoor observation deck in the world (124th floor), at about 440 m (1,440 ft).
World’s highest installation of an aluminium and glass façade, at a height of 512 m (1,680 ft).
World’s highest swimming pool (76th floor)
Worlds highest restaurant (122nd floor)

Español:
Créditos de este texto:
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burj_Khalifa
El Burj Khalifa (en árabe: برج خليفة, transliteración fonética al español: Burch Jalifa, transliteración fonética árabe: Burj Khalifa, en AFI:bʊɾʤ χalifæ) es un rascacielos ubicado en Dubái (Emiratos Árabes Unidos). Con 828 metros de altura, es la estructura más alta de la que se tiene registro en la historia.
Conocido durante su construcción como Burj Dubái (en árabe: برج دبي,Torre Dubái), el Burj Khalifa es la parte central de un desarrollo más complejo conocido en inglés como Downtown Dubai, (en árabe: وسط المدينة) (previamente Downtown Burj Dubai, “Centro Dubái”, en español), un complejo de 2 km2 situado junto a la avenida Jeque Zayed, que atraviesa transversalmente la ciudad de Dubái. La construcción comenzó el 21 de septiembre de 2004, siendo su inauguración oficial el 4 de enero de 2010.7 Debe su nombre al Jeque y presidente de los Emiratos Árabes Unidos, Jalifa bin Zayed Al Nahayan.
El arquitecto redactor principal del proyecto es Adrian Smith, que trabajó junto a la firma Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) hasta 2006. La construcción del Burj Khalifa contó con un presupuesto estimado de más de 4 000 millones de dólares, que se incrementó hasta los 20 000 millones para el desarrollo completo del Downtown Burj Khalifa. Parte del coste del edificio fue financiado por la familia del Emir Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, entre los que destaca su sobrino Fuad bin Rashid Al Maktoum de tan solo 20 años, que financió 25 millones de dólares del proyecto.
El 21 de julio de 2007, la empresa promotora Emaar Properties anunció que el entonces Burj Dubai había superado el récord de altura que ostentaba hasta entonces el rascacielos Taipei 101 con 508 metros, convirtiéndose en el edificio más alto del mundo. Este récord no se hizo oficial hasta el 4 de enero de 2010, pues el organismo encargado de medir la altura de los edificios, el Consejo de Edificios Altos y Hábitat Urbano (CTBUH en sus siglas en inglés), no reconoció la altura definitiva del edificio hasta que concluyeron las obras. El 17 de enero de 2009 el Burj Khalifa alcanzó su altura máxima (828 metros), convirtiéndose en la estructura más alta jamás levantada por el ser humano, aunque la promotora del edificio no confirmó de forma oficial este acontecimiento.

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