The Moderns, part 2… MUNAL…Los modernos, parte 2

Text credits:–Los-Modernos-#.Vsz9T5PhCb8
Modern art arrives at the Museo Nacional de Arte with the exhibition “Los Modernos”
The exhibition Los Modernos, organized by the Museo Nacional de Arte in collaboration with the Musée des Beaux-Arts of Lyon, France, offers a sample of the development of modern art in the first half of the 20th century, from a selection of significant examples of European and Mexican art.
MEXICO CITY.- Although the main discussion centers were the cities of New York and Paris, the modern thinking in art didnt only take place there, its aspirations reached other latitudes that, simultaneously, were added to the break up with the figurative tradition of naturalistic representation and configured the new artistic languages that we know today as Avant Garde movements. Mexico was one of these countries.
The exhibition Los Modernos, organized by the Museo Nacional de Arte in collaboration with the Musée des Beaux-Arts of Lyon, France, offers a sample of the development of modern art in the first half of the 20th century, from a selection of significant examples of European and Mexican art.
The curatorship is in charge of Agustín Arteaga, Director of the Museo Nacional
de Arte and Sylvie Ramond, Director of the Museé des Beaux-Arts of Lyon, in collaboration with Paulina Bravo, chief of the curatorial department of the MUNAL, and Ariadna Patiño Guadarrama, —curators associated to the project, Los Modernos is composed by nine thematic cores that do not answer to a chronological order but to aesthetics discourses that allow to appreciate the statements and dialogues shared by Mexicans and Europeans about the path of the plastic arts, as well as their contributions in the development of the Avant Garde movements such as post- impressionism, fauvism and cubism among others.
Which were the common explorations between these two continents? What generated this ideological change and which were its implications in the artistic field? These questions are answered throughout the more than 140 pieces that compose this exhibit and whose provenance comes both from the Musée des Beaux-Arts of Lyon, and the Museo Nacional de Arte’s collection; as well as other Mexican collections such as the Museo de Arte Moderno and Rufino Tamayo, and international as the Musée Picasso and the Centre National d’Art et de Culture Georges Pompidou of París.
The Mexican Revolution and the First and Second World Wars, altered the way of thinking of the artists and their plastic creativity. Even though the French artists are considered the predecessors of modern art, the Mexican artists were not oblivious to the new possibilities that art found to expand its field of action and some of them, like Diego Rivera, Ángel Zárraga, Gerardo Murillo or Lola Cueto, knew from first hand such precepts in their trips and journeys in Europe. Some others, like the students from the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes —formerly the old Academia de San Carlos— from teachers that studied in Europe or even came from there, knew the same concerns they had in the old continent, as is the case of Saturnino Herrán and María Izquierdo to mention a few.
There were as well, European Artists like André Breton (France, 1896) Wolfgang Paalen (Austria, 1905), Leonora Carrington (England, 1917) or Remedios Varo (Spain, 1908), among others, that visited or lived a part of their life in Mexico, where not only did they bring new aesthetic proposals from their own countries but also participated from ideas that were already being generated here to give a new turn to the European explorations.
Paisaje, the first of these cores, offers a set of pieces of artists such as Albert Gleizes, Rivera or Albert Marquet, that show the fundamental changes in the relationship between drawing and painting that occurred in the shift from the XIX to the XX century. These works expose the early process of transition of some modern artists to more radicalized ways to conceive the space, as cubism would do later, where there is no longer an interest to copy reality but begin to reinterpret it.
The feminine nude was a topic of interest for modern art, because it was linked to the bohemian life and the creative liberty free from the aristocratic moral. The core Desnudo exposes the diverse ways in which the female body was approached once the moderns began to abandon the classical anatomical proportion rules instituted by the Academy and began to propose new approximations to gender through fading figures and the superposition of multiple perspectives. This block is composed by works by artists such as Gerardo Murillo (Dr. Atl), Jean Puy, Raoul Dufy, Ángel Zárraga, Pierre Combet-Descombes, Rufino Tamayo, among others.
The popularization of photography in the XIX century caused the pictoric portrait to abandon the function of representing with the greatest naturalism possible –this was better done by the photographic machine- and opened a field of possibilities that led the modern painters to focus on the emotional and expressive qualities of the subject. The third core, Retrato, oscillates around this topic, it shows the variety of aesthetic solutions and plastic explorations on color, light, chiaroscuros or anatomical disproportion, that the artists used to represent subjectivity. In this core we will find pieces by artists such as Henri Matisse, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Gino Severini, Alfonso Michel, Suzanne Valadon and Alfredo Zalce among others.
Surrealismo deepens in the interchange that took place in our country between national and European artists. The Mexican Surrealism although distant to the specific adscription conceived in Europe and New York was consolidated thanks to the presence of foreign artists like Wolfgang Paalen, Leonora Carrington, Remedios Varo. Besides pieces from these artists, this section includes some examples of the remains of this movement in Europe after World War Two, through works by André Masson, Wilfredo Lam, Victor Brauner and Max Schoendorff.
In the other hand, the core Luz y Color shows the formal explorations about these two elements (light and color) that were no longer approached as a tool in service of the hegemonic of drawing, always controlled to mimic reality, but to progressively become protagonists of the painting thanks to their plastic potential. In these sections we find art works by artists like Robert Delaunay, Lola Cueto, Pierre Bonnard, Roberto Montenegro, among others.
In Línea pieces by authors such as Picasso, Fernand Léger, José Clemente Orozco or Alonso Michel are exhibited. In this section, the pieces compose a series of examples about the new position that the line acquired in the modern art that -as is the case of color and light- stopped being limited to the technique of drawing to ascend as an autonomous unit because of its pictoric qualities.
The refection on space was one of the concerns that interested the moderns. Cubism is the best example of this interest. Espacio, the eight core, shows these explorations through works of Georges Braque, Henri Hayden, Emilio Di Cavalcanti, Léger, Diego Rivera and others.
Finally, the core Abstracción shows art works of this artistic style that is totally opposite to figurative art. It includes pieces by authors such as Pierre Soulages, Olivier Debré, Antoni Tàpies, Francis Bacon and the Mexicans Manuel Felguérez, Vicente Rojo and Fernando García Ponce.
In different directions, this exhibition is an encounter with all the senses, to know the creative spirit among the national and foreign artists and the dialogue that takes place in each core allows to generate a series of proposals where the MUNAL will involve all the public. Cita a ciegas is one of these, in schedules that will be revealed, the exhibition will hide the name of its artists to highlight the mastery of each of the works, promoting new experiences that bring the spectator and the pieces closer in a different way.

Créditos de este texto:
Llegarán “Los modernos” al Museo Nacional de Arte
La muestra permanecerá en el recinto del Centro Histórico del 11 de noviembre al 3 de abril de 2016
10/11/2015 14:48 NOTIMEX
Planteamientos y diálogos compartidos tanto por mexicanos como por europeos en torno al rumbo de las artes plásticas, se podrán observar en la muestra “Los modernos”, que será inaugurada el próximo jueves en el Museo Nacional de Arte (Munal).
La muestra, integrada por más 140 piezas, busca provocar cuestionamientos, sorpresas y reflexiones sobre lo ocurrido en el arte de la primera mitad del siglo XX en México y Europa.
Exhibirán piezas de 31 mexicanos, 48 europeos y 3 latinoamericanos
La exposición, curada por Agustín Arteaga, director del Munal, y Sylvie Ramond, directora del Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon, Francia, presenta muchas obras que obras se exhiben por primera vez en México.
En declaraciones a al Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes (INBA), Agustín Arteaga aseguró que la Revolución Mexicana y las dos guerras mundiales en Europa alteraron el pensamiento de los artistas y su creatividad plástica.
Si bien los artistas franceses son considerados los precursores del arte moderno, los mexicanos no fueron ajenos a las nuevas posibilidades que el arte encontró para expandir su campo de acción. Incluso Diego Rivera, Ángel Zárraga, Gerardo Murillo Dr. Atl y Lola Cueto conocieron de primera mano dichos preceptos en sus viajes y estancias en Europa, agregó.
Asimismo, señaló, André Breton, Wolfgang Paalen, Leonora Carrington y Remedios Varo, entre otros, visitaron o vivieron parte de su vida en México, a donde no sólo trajeron nuevas propuestas estéticas de sus países de origen, sino que también retomaron ideas que ya se generaban aquí para darle un nuevo giro a las exploraciones europeas.
“Los modernos” está dividida en nueve núcleos temáticos que no responden a un orden cronológico, sino a discursos estéticos, es por ello que inicia con “Paisaje”, donde aparecen piezas de Albert Gleizes, Rivera y Albert Marquet, quienes ilustran los cambios fundamentales en la relación entre dibujo y pintura que ocurrieron en el paso del siglo XIX al XX.
Bajo el título “Desnudo”, en el segundo apartado se exhiben las diversas maneras en las que se abordó el cuerpo femenino una vez que los modernos abandonaron las reglas de proporción anatómica clásicas instituidas por la academia y comenzaron a proponer nuevas aproximaciones al género mediante figuras desvanecidas y la superposición de perspectivas múltiples.
Ahí el público podrá apreciar obras del Dr. Atl, Jean Puy, Raoul Dufy, Zárraga, Pierre Combet-Descombes y Rufino Tamayo, entre otros.
Mientras que en “Retrato”, se aprecia la gama de soluciones estéticas y exploraciones plásticas sobre el color, la luz, los claroscuros o la desproporción anatómica que los creadores utilizaron para representar lo subjetivo, a través de piezas Henri Matisse, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Gino Severini, Alfonso Michel, Suzanne Valadon y Alfredo Zalce.
La muestra continúa “Surrealismo”, apartado que da cuenta del intercambio que hubo en México entre artistas europeos y nacionales, y en el que se aprecian piezas de Paalen, Carrington y Varo, así como André Masson, Wifredo Lam, Victor Brauner y Max Schoendorff.
En “Luz” y “Color” se abordan las exploraciones formales sobre ambos elementos, que ya no se emplearon como una herramienta al servicio de la hegemonía del dibujo, siempre controlado para mimetizar la realidad, sino que, progresivamente, se volvieron protagonistas de la pintura gracias a su potencial plástico, debido al trabajo de Robert Delaunay, Cueto, Pierre Bonnard y Roberto Montenegro, por mencionar algunos.
En “Línea” se encuentran piezas de Pablo Picasso, Fernand Léger y José Clemente Orozco, y en “Espacio”, de Georges Braque, Henri Hayden, Rivera y otros.
Al final está el núcleo “Abstracción”, estilo artístico totalmente opuesto al arte figurativo, representado por Pierre Soulages, Olivier Debré, Antoni Tàpies, Francis Bacon, Manuel Felguérez, Vicente Rojo y Fernando García Ponce.
En diferentes direcciones, ´Los modernos´ será un encuentro con todos los sentidos, para conocer el espíritu creativo entre los artistas nacionales y extranjeros”, señaló Arteaga.
Paralelamente a la exposición, que permanecerá abierta al público hasta el 3 de abril de 2016, habrá un ciclo de cine, conferencias, visitas guiadas, talleres, un catálogo bilingüe y material descargable en el sitio web del recinto
“Los modernos” está integrada por 130 óleos, tres dibujos, seis grabados y tres piezas de artes decorativas, realizadas por 31 creadores mexicanos, 48 europeos y tres latinoamericanos.
Después de su periodo de exhibición en el Museo Nacional de Arte, se presentará en el Museo de las Artes de la Universidad de Guadalajara.
En esta exposición, “el arte mexicano podrá ser visto dentro de un contexto internacional y no aislado, como si se tratara de un fenómeno único”, concluyó el director del Munal.

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