Tajin…El Tajín, Veracruz, parte 2

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El Tajin is an important pre-Columbian site in the Gulf Coast of Mexico. It developed between AD 800 and 1200.
Archaeologists had long believed that El Tajín was constructed by the Totonacs, a group that occupied the Gulf Coast of Mexico during the Postclassic period. Although we still don’t know who built El Tajín, it seems now that the site has an earlier origin and it represents a good example of the passage from rural to urban society in the Gulf Coast during the Classic and Epiclassic period.
Most archaeologists now agree that El Tajín started as a ceremonial center at the end of the Classic and in the Epiclassic (AD 700-1000) and then it developed as a urban center with the construction of El Tajín Chico, until its decline in the 13th century.
El Tajín is located in the northern sector of the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, in north-central Veracruz. The city lies on hills top and slopes near two streams, which provided the population with potable water and fertile alluvial soil.
The site itself is limited at east and west by two chasms and it develops on top of several terraces used for residential purposes.
El Tajín is divided in two main sectors: El Tajín and El Tajín Chico, which was previously considered a separate site. The largest complexes are the Central Group and the Arroyo Group where most of the monumental architecture is concentrated.
El Tajín has an unusually high number of ball courts, 17. Other important buildings are the famous Pyramid of the Niches, the Temple of the Columns, the Blue Temple, Buildings A, B, and C and the Great Xicalcoluihqui (Great Enclosure), a large wall, decorated with elegant friezes that encloses an area of about 129,000 square feet (12,000 m2) and contains three small ball courts.
Architecture at El Tajín is characterized by a typical style of mosaic decorations visible in the Temple of the Niches, and in other buildings around it. The presence of niches is the other typical element that distinguishes the architecture of El Tajín. The Temple of the Niches counts 365 niches arranged on its six levels and on all four sides. Archaeologists believe that the monument served as mausoleum for one of the most important ruler of the city, King 13 Rabbit.
http://archaeology.about.com/od/tterms/a/el-Tajin.htm

El Tajín es considerado la capital de la cultura totonaca. Su nombre significa “Lugar del Trueno” y desde 1992 está inscrito como Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad.
Se localiza en el municipio de Papantla de Olarte en el estado de Veracruz y anualmente es sede de uno de los cien festivales culturales mas importantes del mundo conocido como “Cumbre Tajín”.
En El Tajín tendrás la oportunidad de conocer uno de los pilares de la cultura veracruzana e indígena mientras disfrutas de la calidez y sabiduría del pueblo totonaca.
El máximo esplendor de El Tajín se calcula hacia el año 800 y 1150. La zona arqueológica esta organizada en secciones denominadas Conjunto de las Columnas, Grupo Plaza del Arroyo, El Tajín Chico, Gran Xicalcoliuhqui y Zona Central.
A lo largo del recorrido podrás visitar alrededor de 17 juegos de pelota y admirar las construcciones que llegan a más de un centenar. También cuenta con un museo de sitio donde se exhiben objetos hallados en las tumbas de la zona.
Entre los aspectos más importantes de El Tajín se encuentra su arquitectura única, llena de significados relacionados con el estudio astronómico que los totonacas desarrollaron en este asentamiento mesoamericano.
Uno de los edificios más impresionantes es la Pirámide de los Nichos; se estima que podría haber funcionado como calendario para llevar la cuenta total de los días del año debido a los 365 nichos que componen su fachada.
http://enmexico.about.com/od/Arqueologia/tp/El-TajIn.htm

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